In my previous two blog posts, I discussed the functional organization structure and the projectized organization structure; in this blog post, I am going to discuss the matrix organization structure.
The matrix organization structure is a combination of two or more types of organizational structures, such as the projectized organization structure and the functional organization structure.
These two types of organizational structures represent the two extreme points of a string, while the matrix organization structure is a balance of these two.
This combination may help organizations achieve higher efficiency, readiness, and quick market adaptation. Moreover, they often can respond faster to market or customer demand while decreasing the lead time to produce a new product.
This type of structure is most suitable for organizations operating in a dynamic environment.
However, if any organization is working in a stagnant environment, producing standard products with customers rarely changing requirements, the matrix structure is not well suited for them. They should adopt the functional organization structure instead.
Matrix Organization Structure
According to the PMBOK Guide, the matrix organization is a blend of the projectized and the functional organization structures.
The authority of a functional manager flows vertically downwards, and the authority of the project manager flows sideways. Since these authorities flow downward and sideways, this structure is called a matrix organization structure.
In a matrix organization structure, employees may report to many managers. Some from one section may report to one boss while the rest report to a different boss.
For example, let us say you are a mechanical engineer working in a functional department. Your organization gets a project and they need a mechanical engineer to assist the project manager on certain tasks. In this case, you may be assigned to the project for a short time, or they may transfer you there while your services are required. If you’re assigned there for a short time, you may have to report to two bosses.
The matrix organization structure takes the characteristics of both types of organization structures. The matrix structure is a composite of the projectized organization structure and the functional organization structure. Here, the knowledge, skill, or talent of an employee is shared between the functional department and project management team.
In a matrix structure, some employees usually work under more than one boss (usually two). The first boss will be their functional manager and the other often is a project manager.
The functional manager may look after the functional part of the project; he may decide how to do the work, and may distribute the project work among his subordinates. The project manager will have authority over the administrative part of the project, such as what to do, follow-up on the schedule, evaluate the performance, etc.
Working in a matrix organization can be challenging because you have a confusing role while reporting to two bosses. To avoid confusion and work efficiently in a matrix organization, you must be clear on your role, responsibilities, and the work priorities.
The matrix organization structure usually exists in large and multi-project organizations, where they can relocate employees whenever and wherever their services are needed. The matrix structure has the flexibility of relocating the organization’s talent. The employees are considered to be shared resources among the projects and functional units.
Type of Matrix Organization Structure
The matrix organization structure can be classified into three categories, largely depending on the level of power of the project manager. These categories are as follows:
- Strong Matrix Structure
- Balanced Matrix Structure
- Weak Matrix Structure
Strong Matrix Organization Structure
In strong matrix organizations, most of the power and authority is held by the project manager. The project manager has a full-time role, has a full-time project management administrative staff under him, and controls the project budget. The strong matrix structure has a lot of the characteristics of a projectized organization.
The functional manager will have a very limited role within the strong matrix organization.
Balanced Matrix Organization Structure
In balanced matrix organizations, power and authority are shared between the functional managers and the project managers. Although the project manager has a full-time role, he will have a part time or otherwise limited project management administrative staff under him. In this type of structure, both managers control the project’s budget.
Weak Matrix Organization Structure
In weak matrix organizations, the project manager will have limited power and authority. He will have a part-time role and no administrative staff will report to him. His role will be more like a coordinator or an expediter. Here, the functional manager controls the project budget.
A weak matrix organization structure resembles the characteristics of a functional organization structure.
Advantages of a Matrix Organization Structure
The following are a few advantages of a matrix organization structure:
- Highly skilled and capable resources can be shared between the functional units and projects, allowing more open communication lines which help in sharing the valuable knowledge within the organization.
- The matrix structure is more dynamic than the functional structure because it allows employees to communicate more readily across the boundaries, creating a good, cooperative, work environment which helps to integrate the organization.
- Employees can broaden their skills and knowledge areas by participating in different kinds of projects. The matrix structure provides a good environment for professionals to learn and grow their careers.
- In functional departments, employees are very skilled, and project teams can get these highly-skilled employees whenever their services are needed.
- Since there is a sense of job security, employees tend to be loyal to the organization and perform well, and therefore, the efficiency of a matrix organization is higher.
Disadvantages of a Matrix Organization Structure
The following are a few disadvantages of a matrix organization structure:
- Employees may have to report to two managers, which adds confusion and may cause conflict. This usually happens in a balanced matrix organization where both bosses have equal authority and power.
- A conflict may arise between the project manager and the functional manager regarding the authority and power.
- If the priorities are not defined clearly, employees may be confused about their role and responsibility, especially when they are assigned a task which is different from, or even counter to, what they were doing.
- If any resource is scarce, there might be competition to use it, which may cause hostility within the workplace and could affect the operation.
- It is generally perceived that matrix organizations have more managers than required, which increases overhead costs.
- In a matrix organization, the workload tends to be high. Employees have to do their regular work along with the additional project-related work, which can exhaust them. It is also possible that the employee may ignore either his functional responsibilities or project management responsibilities if overtaxed.
- A matrix structure is expensive to maintain. Organizations have to pay extra to keep resources because not all resources will be occupied at all times. Some resources are needed only for a short duration.
How to Overcome the Disadvantages of a Matrix Organization Structure
Some of the disadvantages can be overcome:
- There must be close cooperation between the project manager and the functional manager. This will help avoid confusion and conflict.
- There should be well defined and strong communication in all directions. This is important to gain support from executives, managers, supervisors, and employees. Organizations must communicate their vision, objective, and goal with their employees.
- There should be a proper and balanced distribution of authority and power between the project manager and the functional manager. Both managers should get the required power and authority. Any imbalance may impact the effectiveness of operations.
- Any conflict between the project manager and the functional manager must be resolved as early as possible, and in private.
- Roles and responsibilities must be clearly documented and communicated to all employees to avoid confusion.
A matrix organization is defined as an organization where people have to report to more than one boss. The matrix organization structure is a blend of the projectized organization and the functional organization, and tries to blend the best of both worlds. In a projectized organization, the project manager has all authority and power while in a functional organization, the functional manager has the authority. In a matrix organization, they both hold power, and this power sharing changes according to the type of matrix structure of the organization. A matrix structure is suited to big organizations which operate in a dynamic environment and need a quick response to market demand.
This concludes this blog post on the matrix organization structure. If you have something to share, please do so through the comments section.
Reference: Alternative Organizational Structures” 1976 and “Is the Matrix Fad a Fast fading flower” 1984 Bob Youker