failure mode and effect analysis-FMEA

No one wants a defective product. Defects are costly, frustrating, and damaging to the company’s reputation.

As a project manager, you will try to avoid failure in your deliverable using every possible technique. One is “Failure Mode and Effect Analysis,” or FMEA. This helps you locate potential issues with a product and allows you to take corrective action.

The FMEA can improve your systems, design processes, and production processes.

This technique is also known as “Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis” (FMECA) or sometimes simply “failure modes.”

FMEA is a straightforward, qualitative technique that involves brainstorming with experts and listing their comments in a table. It is similar to the process of creating a probability and impact matrix.

Here, experts identify possible causes for product failure, the chances of these happening, the impact, how easy it is to detect failure, etc. These opinions are noted in a table for further review.

This helps you identify many failures that can affect the deliverable.

When to Use FMEA

FMEA is useful for avoiding future errors and improving the reliability of the process and the product. You can use it in the following cases:

  • During the development of a new product or process.
  • Before you make changes to a product or process.
  • After identifying an error in a process or product.
  • When receiving numerous and consistent complaints from customers.
  • When sale support costs are unusually high.
  • When a company’s credibility is at stake.

This technique is not confined to any industry or technology.

How to Use FMEA

This technique requires expert judgment. You will call experts for one or more brainstorming sessions. They will help you identify, collect, and evaluate the potential defects, their causes, and the impact.

The experts should belong to all functional areas so you can cover the complete product life cycle.


You can use the following table to record the experts’ input. You will pay more attention to analyzing the cause of possible equipment failure.

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) table

The FMEA technique uses three parameters: severity, occurrence, and detection.

Severity (SEV) shows the harshness of the defect on the user. Occurrence (OCC) predicts how often the issue may happen. Detection (DET) represents how easily you can find the problem.

For each potential error or defect, experts will assign a value from one to ten, where one is extremely unlikely and ten is extremely likely. After the brainstorming session ends, you will compile the list of problems, causes, and their ratings. Afterward, you will enter this information into a table.

Finally, you multiply the severity, occurrence, and detection of each defect to generate an RPN. This stands for Risk Probability Number and provides an overall risk impact score for each defect. In our example table, the RPN for the failure is 81.

You will decide the thresholds of each risk level after generating the RPN for all possible defects and failures. The threshold can be high, medium, or low. Using the RPN number, you will decide if a defect cause is high, medium, or low-level priority.

You will work on the high-priority RPNs to mitigate or eliminate defects.

For example, the second table shows your recommended action for an identified failure, who will be responsible for the action, and when you should implement it.

You will record this failure and the action taken on it once it happens.

How to Implement FMEA

You have a list of possible errors and their potential corrective actions. Now, you will assign responsibility to your team members to implement these actions so that the RPN of these errors can be reduced.

You will review them again after the corrective actions have been implemented to assess the effectiveness of an action plan. If necessary, a new FMEA will be generated to re-assess the risks and defects.

Use the Pareto Law while using this technique. Focus on the minority of causes creating most of the issues or defects. This provides the most significant impact while using the least resources. You can take on the other defects, as resources permit, once these high-impact issues are resolved.

You can plan a new corrective action to mitigate the problem if you see that a particular issue is not being resolved currently.

Benefits of FMEA

A few benefits of FMEA are:

  • Improved and more reliable products
  • Less after-sale support
  • Increased customer satisfaction
  • Improved brand reputation
  • Reduced failure and warranty costs
  • Maximizing profits by reducing after-sales expenses


FMEA is a proactive technique that helps you to identify potential defects and failures before they occur. This is a fantastic, qualitative method, and if used correctly can bring many benefits to your organization. Though this technique is time-consuming due to the involvement of various stakeholders, it will lead your project to a successful ending.

Please share your experiences with the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) technique in the comments section.

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Speak Your Mind

  • Excellent !! Very easy to understand.
    Sir, I have done my Diploma in Mechanical Engineering & presently doing AMIE course. For AMIE course I have selected ‘Process FMEA for TATA Hybrid bus’ at ACGL-Goa as my project. Can I do project individually by collecting the required data from company or it is a team project?

  • I especially liked the idea of linking risk to economic consequences.

    One other problem I have run into over the years lies with the determination of occurrence When evaluating a new process or system, the true rate of failure is unknown.

    If the team is composed of individuals with prior understanding of similar systems or historic performance, it is easy to estimate the new occurrence rating by examining historic experience. Often though, the default is to rank occurrence with a high number due to lack of experience.

    In a risk adverse environment, the result is that high risk is everywhere due to high occurrence or detection numbers. The FMEA then becomes unmanageable and loses any advantage of prioritization.

  • Hi,
    Can you please differentiate between occurrence and detection. According to me, occurrence means issue has occurred but not detected by people. Detection means issue occurred and also got detected . Please clarify

    • You are right.

      Here the occurrence mean how many frequently this issue is likely to happen, and detection implies how easily you can detect it.

  • Excellent. Very short and to the point. Very easy to learn and implement. Please continue to educate us.

  • You have done a terrific job on preparing these blogs. Thank you for preparing them very concise and clear.

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