When I was preparing for my PMP certification exam, I never thought that total float and free float were different concepts. I used to think that these two terms were just synonyms to each other.

Fortunately, before the exam, I came to understand the difference between these two concepts.

Therefore, I am writing this blog post to express my understanding on the topic. Please go through this concept carefully; otherwise you may face some difficulty in analyzing the network diagrams and the critical path.

**Total Float**

Total float is what many of us are aware of, and is commonly referred to as a float.

Total float is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the project completion date. On a critical path, the total float is zero.

Total float is often known as the slack.

You can calculate the total float by subtracting the Early Start date of an activity from its Late Start date (Late Start date – Early Start date), or Early Finish date from its Late Finish date (Late Finish date – Early Finish date).

**Free Float**

Now we come to free float. This is going to be a bit different, and might be new to you.

Free float is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the Early Start of its successor activity.

You can calculate the free float by subtracting the Early Finish date of the activity from the Early Start date of next activity (ES of next Activity – EF of current Activity).

Keep in mind that if two activities are converging to a single activity, only one of these two activities may have free float.

**A note on convention used in the example:**

There is disagreement whether the first day of the project should be “1” or “0”.

In fact, both conventions are correct, and you are free to choose what you prefer. I choose to start my project from day “1”.

The following are my reasons for doing so:

- This convention is followed the PMBOK Guide.
- It seems more logical to me to say, “Hey, today is my first day of the project!” instead of saying, “Hey, today is my zero day of the project.”

Anyway, you are free to select your own choice.

Since mathematically these two situations are different, the formula to be used to calculate the free float will also be slightly different. Don’t worry; the result is same in both cases.

Now we will move on to the examples. I will start with a simple example, and then go on to a more complex situation.

While giving you these examples, I’m assuming that you’re aware of drawing a network diagram, identifying the critical, and calculating the Early Start, Early Finish, Late Start, and Late Finish dates of activities.

Don’t worry, if you’re having problems with these calculations, I have written a blog post on the critical path method explaining all these things. Please visit this blog post to understand these concepts better and then come back here again.

Visit: Critical Path Method

Okay, let’s get started.

#### Example: 1

In the above network diagram, we have two paths:

- The first path is A->B->D with 20 days duration, and
- The second path is A->C->D with 12 days duration.

Obviously, the path A->B->D is the critical path because it has the longest duration.

### Calculating the Total Float

As we can see, the given diagram has only two paths, path A->B->D and path A->C->D.

The path A->B->D is a critical path; therefore it will not have a total float.

Since the path A->C->D is a non-critical path, it can have a total float.

You have two methods to calculate the total float. In the first method, you subtract the duration of the non-critical path from the critical path.

In the second method, you find the total float for any activity by subtracting the Early Start date from the Late Start date(LS – ES), or subtracting the Early Finish date from the Late Finish date (LF – EF) on any activity.

#### The first method of finding the Total Float

Total float = duration of the critical path – duration of the non-critical path

= (duration of the path A->B->D) – (duration of the path A->C->D)

= 20 – 12

= 8

Hence, the total float is 8 days.

#### The second method of finding the Total Float

On the path A->C->D, Activity A and D lie on the critical path; therefore, they will not have a total float. Only Activity C can have a total float.

As stated earlier, we can calculate the total float by using either finish dates or start dates. Here, I will show you both ways to find it.

First we will go with the Late Finish and Early Finish dates:

Total float for Activity C = (LF of Activity C– EF of Activity C)

= 15 – 7

= 8

Now, the second formula:

Total float for Activity C = (LS of Activity C – ES of Activity C)

= 14 – 6

= 8

So both durations are the same, which means both formulas will provide you with the same result.

### Calculating the Free Float

From the figure, you can see that only Activity C can have a free float, because other activities are lying on the critical path.

Let’s find it.

Free float of Activity C = ES of next Activity – EF of Activity C – 1

= 16 – 7

= 8

Hence, the free float for activity C is 8 days.

Now it is time to move on to a more complex example.

#### Example: 2

For the below given network diagram, identify which activities can have a free float and calculate the free and total float for those activities, considering duration in days.

We know that,

Free float = ES of next Activity – EF of current Activity

In the above diagram, Activity G can have the free float because Activity D and G are converging on one common activity.

Activity D will not have a free float because its successor activity E is starting on next day of completing of activity D.

### Free Float for Activity G

We know the formula for free float:

Free float of activity G = Early Start of Activity E – Early Finish of Activity G – 1

= 6 – 3 – 1

= 2

### Total Float for Activity G

Total float for Activity G = Late Finish of Activity G – Early Finish of Activity G

= 18 – 3

= 15

You see here that the free float for Activity G is 2 days, and the total float is 15 days, both are different.

Please note: if in the exam you’re asked to calculate the float for any activity, you have to calculate the total float. Total float is commonly referred to as a float.

Here is where this blog post finishes. If you have any thoughts, share them through the comments section.

**Update:** This blog post has been updated to correct an error pointed out by Mr Murali and Mr Bryan.

If you are interested in learning all mathematical formulas for the PMP exam, you can try my PMP Formula Guide, and PMP Question Bank to practice 400 PMP exam sample questions.

Kishore Vaishnav says

Can you please give me an example where total float of an activity is not same as free float of that same activity.

Fahad Usmani says

Hello Kishore,

In fact, I was also planning to draw a network diagram where you can see that the total float and free float are different but in that case, calculation will little lengthy. So I avoided it.

I covered concept to calculate the total float and free float in this example and I hope once you understand it, you can calculate them in any scenario.

Even if you’re having any problem with it, send me scanned copy of diagram, I will try to explain it to you, or wait for my other blog post in CPM where I will calculate the total float and free float for more complex diagrams.

Ahmad Yousef says

Hi friend

For activity G, if the total float is 15 days, how comes that the successor activity E starts at day 6?

I think that I am confused about the real meaning of total float!

Fahad Usmani says

Total float is an amount of delay that an activity can be delayed without affecting the project end date. Please note that, for a critical path, total float will be zero.

Ayushman says

I am unable to see the network diagrams on any of the questions of explanations like the one above for total and free float.

Fahad Usmani says

Thanks for your compliments Ayushman!

drew says

Hi Fahad, Thanks for the explanation and a good diagram, now i can calculate them. Looking ahead for the next post in CPM for more complex diagrams and their calculations. thankyou

Fahad Usmani says

Soon you will see them.

Fahad Usmani says

Update:

Hello Drew,

here is the post on critical path method with more complex diagram and calculation.

https://pmstudycircle.com/2014/01/critical-path-method-cpm-in-project-management/

jayatheertha says

hi,

can you please explain how do we calculate a float for a particular node, like what is the float at node B?

Fahad Usmani says

In the given example we have two paths; i.e. ABD and ACD. The duration of the path ABD is 20 days, and the duration of path ACD is 12 days.

Obviously, the path ABD is the critical path, and float on critical path is always zero. Therefore the float for activity B is zero.

However, you can calculate the float for the path ACD, which is (20 – 12); i.e. 8 days. Therefore flat for activity C will be 8 days.

jayatheertha says

thanks a lot Fahad for the explanation

Shalin says

If there was a diagrammatic solution it would be easy to understand more. I suggest draw stuff from a diagram solution like http://creately.com

Fahad Usmani says

Thanks Shalin for sharing the link.

Jerry says

Do you have anything describing total float vs. free float when you have start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish links along with leads and lags?

Fahad Usmani says

I took the simplest example to explain the concept. As of now I don’t have any start-to-start, finish-to-finish, finish-to-start and start-to-finish relationship diagram with leads and lags explaining the float concept.

But in future I might write on it.

Muhammad Abbas says

Also There is one other type of float in which is interferring float ” is the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project but delay the early start of the succeceding activities.

Ritz says

Well, Interfering float = Total float – Free Float, i.e. amount of total float which is not available.

Muhammad Abbas says

one other type of float in independent float :”is the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of the succeeding activity and without being affected by the allowable delay of the preceding activities”.

Fahad Usmani says

The PMBOK Guide recognizes only two types of float; i.e. total float and free float.

Samuel Odozi says

Thanks for your detailed explanation on Total Float vs Free Float. Sir, i’ve not gotting the concept of RACI Chart and thus cannot answer PMP questions on it, pls i need you assistance.

Samuel Odozi says

Thanks for your detailed explanation on Total Float vs Free Float. Sir, i’ve not got the concept of RACI Chart and thus cannot answer PMP questions on it, pls i need you assistance.

Fahad Usmani says

RACI stands for responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed. It is a responsibility assignment matrix where you list the name of person and mention that whether he is responsible, accountable, consultant, or informed for a particular process.

Mike Grisham says

I’m attempting to calculate the date by which a task must be completed so it won’t delay the subsequent task(s), in Project 2007. I’m using Free Float added to the Finish date. Most of the returned dates make sense. However, a few don’t. I haven’t identified a pattern to the exceptions yet. Any thoughts on this?

Fahad Usmani says

Sorry Mike, I don’t have a good idea about MS Project.

Daniel Koshy says

Hello Fahad

Seriously this blog and notes has prevented me from tearing my hair :). I initially just knew the definition of free float but never had to calculate it on any of the questions I came across, I came across it on the first pmp exam which I took and failed. Finally found a free float calculation question on oliver lehmann today and was confused by the answer. I found more confusing answers on pmzilla, different people had different opinions on how to calculate it. I was really frustrated seeing so many answers and not knowing for sure how to calculate it. even the first website that came up on google when I typed “how to calculate free float” explained it, but I was still not confident in trusting it. However your blog explains it completely with an example. I am confident now. Thanks a lot man..really really appreciate it. I will keep looking for more questions that I have on your blog. This is my second time preparation for the pmp. I have gone through 5 books in total: Rita, achieve pmp success, kim heldman and pmp head first. The last 2 I have just gone through the questions, since I felt the explanation is the same across the books. I am in the process of completing as many sample exams I can come across, I have been doing okay averaging 70% across all, some tough some easy. Sorry….digressed from my initial comment..thanks a lot once again.

– Daniel

Fahad Usmani says

Hello Daniel,

I am sorry to hear that you have failed the exam in your first attempt. I hope you will pass the exam in your next attempt. Just work on improving your weak spot.

Don’t go for many books. Two books with the PMBOK Guide is more than enough to pass the exam.

Fahad

khaled_elagmy says

Hi

I think if there is more than one successor activity,we must take the least in early start not the greater … I want explain this point why u take the greater….it seems not logical to me

Fahad Usmani says

I think you are talking about the forward pass, when an activity has two predecessor activities, and we take the greater early finish date to calculate the early start of successor activity.

Okay.

Let us say activity C has two predecessor activities, activity A and activity B. It means activity C can not be started until its predecessors activities complete. If activity A finishes in 5 days and Activity B finishes in 10 days, activity C will only start after 10 days, because until both activities complete, activity C can not be started.

Hope it helps.

sadek says

free float = minimum early start of succesor – Late finish

NOT THE GREATER EARLY START

Fahad Usmani says

What did you mean?

J Fahmi says

I appreciate your lucid explanation on the topic.

Fahad Usmani says

Thanks Fahmi.

Ahmed says

Dear Mr Fahad

Thanks for nice explanation,

Can you explain the examples of network diagrams with leads and lags e.g Finish to Finish, Start to finish, Start to Start.

Fahad Usmani says

Hello Ahmad,

The example given in this blog post is enough for the PMP exam. Anyway, I have noted your request and once I get some time, I will update this post with more examples as you requested.

Ahmed says

Thanks Fahad

I will be wait for your comment.

Murali says

Dear Fahad,

I beg to differ on your explanation on FF. As per the definition of FF, “it is the duration by which an activity can be delayed without impacting the ES of the successor activity or successor activities.

Therefore for activity D the FF is ZERO, as any delay in activity D will impact the ES of Activity E, eventhough it doesnot impact activity B. Similarly the FF of activity G is ZERO, as any delay in activity G will impact the ES of Activity H, eventhough it doesnot impact activity E.

As I understand FF of an activity is NOT calculated by taking the largest ES date of its successors, and it is just governed by the above DEFINITION.

Most importantly, the activities having FF in the network are:

Activity F= 31-18= 13 days

Activity I=31-13= 18 days

Loading the above network to a CPM software could thoroughly validate my explanation.

Fahad Usmani says

Total Float and Free Float are different.

An activity will have a free float only when it has two successors activities.

Hope it helps.

Murali says

I am sorry to say your explanation on FF is flawed. It is NOT true that an activity will have a FF only when it has 2 successor activities.

Infact FF can only occur when 2 or more activities share a common successor and not the other way. As I said before the only activities having FF in the network are activities F and I.

I am only replying for the benefit of others, as I have seen in this string many people (Khaled, Joe, HB, Sadek etc) raising the same question to you on FF.

Fahad Usmani says

I meant that, to have a free float an activity should have more than one successor activity. It can have two successor activities or three…

For more clarification, you can visit the pmbok guide, page 177, which says..

free float is the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraints.

Fahad Usmani says

Hello Murali,

Let me explain you in this way.

The PMBOK Guide says that

“free float is the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraints.”

And you says that Activities F and I will have a free float. How they can have it because they are last activities on their respective path, and therefore they are not affecting the early start of their successor activities.

Now you are saying that activity D is not having the free float.

Let us see if the PMBOK Guide’s definition is applying here.

Activity D is finishing on 5 day.

Its successor Activity is B, which is starting on 11 day.

Now you can clearly see that activity D can be delayed for 5 days without affecting the early start of Activity B. This is exactly the PMBOK Guide is saying. Please read the definition again.

Hence the Activity D will have free float of 5 days.

Is it clear?

Bryan says

If there was an activity before END, then the F and I would have a free float that would be the same as total float as you explained in the first simple example.

On the other hand, if you had an activity right after START branching out to A, D and G, then the activity would not have a free float despite the fact that it had multiple successors.

If you delete H and I from the diagram, G would have free float of 2 days and total float of 15 days even though it does not have multiple successors. It shares E as successor with D.

In your diagram, D and G would violate E and H respectively if they are delayed though it would not affect critical path right away.

I am not sure if D and G really have a free float when they violate one of the successors as long as it does not affect critical path.

I would appreciate if you check again and clarify.

Fahad Usmani says

Hello Bryan,

You are right, free float will occur when two or more activities shares a common successor.

I have amended this blog post as well.

Murali says

Dear Fahad,

Let me explain my position as below:

“free float is the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of “ANY” successor or violating a schedule constraints.”

Please note the word ‘ANY’ from the above definition:

For activity D, it has 2 successors namely activity B and activity E. All the while in your explanation you are talking about FF of activity D with respect to Activity B (first successor) only, what about its impact on activity E (the second successor)????

Can we delay the activity D without delaying the ES of Activity E?, and the answer is NO. Therefore as per definition the activity D has Zero FF.

The same logic goes to activity G, which also has ZERO FF, as it is delaying the ES of activity H.

Nowhere in the defintion it talks about taking the greatest ES amongst its successors while calculating the FF of an activity.

Nowhere in the defintion it talks about taking only ONE successor while calculating the FF of an activity.

Also it is NOT MANDATORY to have multiple successors to have a FF, even activities with a single successor can have FF provided you have a CONVERGING network.

That is the reason why FF is more stringent than a TF. The reason being, for a FF all the activities are to be completed as per their ES dates.

Therefore in a project, the TF is owned by the Owner/client and the FF is owned by the Contractor.

Now coming to activities F & I, both of them have a successor activity END (which is a milestone activity with duration ZERO). As the CP duration is determined as 31 days, the activity F has a FF of 31-18= 13 days and activity I has a FF of 31-13=18 days. Coincidentally they are equal to their respective Total Floats as well.

As I mentioned in my first reply, please update this logic in a CPM software like P3, P6 or MS Project and they will validate my explanation.

Fahad Usmani says

Please send me your network diagram at fahad@pmstudycircle.com

You are right that when two or more activity will converge, they may have free float. I have corrected this error in my blog post.

Regarding your second point:

You are saying that Free Float of F = 31 – 18,

This means Free Float of F = Late Finish of F – Early Finish of F

Are you sure?

I believe you are calculating total float and mixing it with free float.

Formula to calculate free float is

Free Float of an activity = ES of next Activity – EF of Activity

Murali says

As the activity END is a milestone activity (Zero duration), its ES is 31 and EF is 31.

FF of activity F= ES of activity END – EF of Activity F

=31- 18= 13 (In other words activity F can be delayed by 13 days without delaying the ES of activity END or project completion)

FF of activity I= ES of activity END – EF of Activity I

=31- 13= 18

Now coming to Total Floats,

TF of activity F= LF of activity F – EF of activity F

= 31 – 18 = 13 days

TF of activity I= LF of activity I – EF of activity I

= 31 – 13 = 18 days

Therefor for activities F & I, the TF and FF are the same.

Hope this clarifies.

Fahad Usmani says

Okay.

Fahad Usmani says

Yes, you’re right Murali that free float will occur when two activities share a common successor.

Thanks for pointing out this mistake in this blog post and I thank you for the same.

Murali says

Dear Fahad,

You are welcome.

I am happy that I could contribute to your popular website for prospective PMPs.

Please continue your good work for the PM community.

Ali says

Your explanation on every topic is wonderful. I will practice the calculation with the similar example you used for your calculation and then I think I’ll be able to perform all the calucations with difderent examples.

Fahad Usmani says

I’m glad it helped you understand the concept.

Vijay Kumar says

I’m very lucky to get the explanations and examples so easily explained by you…..really appreciated and thanks a lot for writing such a wonderful blog….thanks again…

Fahad Usmani says

You are welcome Vijay.

Muhammad Anjum says

What is the significance of free float?

Fahad Usmani says

It gives extra margin to an activity.

Muhammad Anjum says

Fahad sb Jazak Allah for replying and clarifying. I have another question regarding total float and free float, which is,

What does mean by total float is owned by owner and free float is owned by contractor?

I saw this in above comments.

Fahad Usmani says

Total float may affect the project completion date which is a concern of client.

Regarding the free float, it just affects the early start of next activity and client does not care about it. It is up to you to manage it. Client rarely interfere that how you manage the individual activities.

Muhammad Anjum says

Jazak Allah, Now its clear.

Shalin says

Is this an AON diagram? Some nodes are hard to read. Total float can be vary here.

Regards,

Creately

Fahad Usmani says

Which diagram are you talking about?

shyamala says

thank you very much. your explanation has made a lot of difference. Please let me know if my understanding is correct: 1. Free float can be calculated only for activities that share a common successor (in this case F and C have a common successor in “end”) and 2. the formula would be “ES of the next activity – Early Finish Date of the current activity” (no subtracting 1 even if we start with 1 as the start date). It would be great if you could come. Thanks for sharing knowledge.

Fahad Usmani says

As per my understanding you will have to subtract 1 in this case as well.

Tauseef Qureshey says

Is Free Float same as Buffer ?

Fahad Usmani says

No, they are different.

Please read below given blog post to understand the buffer:

https://pmstudycircle.com/2014/02/critical-chain-method-ccm-in-project-management/

Sean says

Hi,in th

So in your example 2 the total float for the project is 33 (5+13+15), is that correct? What is the secret for calculating total float for the project? It is just adding all floats for all of the activities in the project together isn’t it?

Fahad Usmani says

Please read this blog post on critical path method:

https://pmstudycircle.com/2014/01/critical-path-method-cpm-in-project-management/

khang says

Hello Fahad.

First, thank you for the lesson!

Please advise my understanding.

On D-B-C path, am i correct to say the Activity “D” has a free float of 5 days to its successor Activity “B”.

* I am still struggling to fully understand the influence of Free Float in Total Float

Thank you

Fahad Usmani says

Activity E is starting just after completing the activity D, so activity D can not have a free float.

Tessy says

In the diagram used for example 2, how total float do we have?

31-18=13 and

31- 16= 15

Doest it mean if asked to calculate the float (free float) in diagram 2 it would have 2 answers ie 13 and 15 as the float?

Pls explain.

Thanks

Fahad Usmani says

Every path will have its own float.

Eric Omoi says

Send me more diagrams of network analysis with calculated total and free floats. Am in Kenya and my email address is omoshieric@yahoo.com

Fahad Usmani says

You can draw the diagram on your own, and try to solve it.

Umamaheswari says

in example 2, you have mentioned Free float of activity G = Early Start of Activity E – Early Finish of Activity G – 1

whats this -1 means,pls help

Fahad Usmani says

Since I have assumed the first day of starting the project is “1”, I will have subtract it from the formula. If you start from zero, you don’t have to do it.

Will Conserve says

Fahad,

You made a mistake on the formula for the Free Float. Right after the definition of the Free Float, you stated that Free Float =ES of the next activity -EF of the current activity.

I think the formula should have been Free Float =ES of the next activity -EF of the current activity -1.

Fahad Usmani says

This issue is already explained in the blog post. You will subtract 1 from the formula if the project starting day is “1”.

If the project starts on day “0”, you will not subtract 1 from the formula.

Rahma says

Who owns the float?

Fahad Usmani says

Float is assigned to the path, no body owns it.

rohit says

Float or total float can only be calculated for a path and not for an activity. Is this statement true or false?

Plz reply asap. Thank you.

Fahad Usmani says

You can calculate the total float for a path and activities on this path can use it.

Sarmad Raheem says

Great Effort Fahad. Although i am not preparing for PMP, but your topic was indeed a great effort in clearing concepts for Management Accounting paper of CA (Pakistan)

Fahad Usmani says

Do they have network diagram’s questions in CA exam?

Nutan says

Hi Fahad,

Very good block

Great help for new candidates

Best Regards,

Nutan

Fahad Usmani says

Thanks Nutan.

Siva says

I am little bit of Confusion regarding Free Float Formula

1.Free float = ES of next Activity – EF of current Activity – 1

2.Free float = ES of next Activity – EF of current Activity

Siva says

3.Free float = ES of next Activity – EF of current Activity – Duration of Present

Siva says

Which Formula is correct from above 1,2,and 3.

Fahad Usmani says

Formula 1 & 2 both are correct.

Please read this blog post, this issue is already explained here.

Anurag says

This was very helpful. Thanks a lot

usman says

what is free float of activity D? in example 2

Fahad Usmani says

Activity D will not have a free float because its successor activity E is starting on next day of completing of activity D.

SYM says

Hello,

I found your blogs very helpful and useful in clarifying my understanding of this confusing topic. Thanks s o much! I am unfortunately studying to take the exam a 2nd time and I feel as thought I’ve learned a couple of new things here. Hopefully enough to pass!

Fahad Usmani says

Good luck on your second attempt Sym.

Nehal Dixit says

I took a course on Project Management in the business school and whenever I use to solve problems on Network diagram – AON was my favorite method to solve scheduling problem – however, as Fahad has already pointed out the non-nomenclatures followed by PMI is start day as 1 and I always choose 0 as my first day however, I got many wrong answers before I familiarize myself with that.

Total slack ( Float ) can’t be there without late pass – if one thinks logically how am I suppose to calculate float for the project without carrying out calculations from both ends – Thus, it is simply subtraction of ES – LS or EF – LF – Yes, they both should have same answers – good way to check.

Ground Rule 2: While drawing ND, when you start plugging values on each node – Left -> Right always choose higher value and add

e.g.,. if the dependency is A->B and there is another dependency C->B if A is ( 0,5 ) if C is (0,7 ) then choose C over A and add the duration to reach B suppose that duration is four which will make it (7,11)

Similarly, backward pass always choose lower value of the two.

Ground rule 3: Free float or Free slack – one has to forget Late values and try to see shortest way to reach other node but there is a twist here suppose if B(3,6) goes to C(8,11) and D(6,15) then free float will be 0 and not 2 – many people make this mistake.

Fahad Usmani says

Well said Mr. Nehal.